Man Ray
1890 – 1976

Man Ray brought his photograms, which he called rayographs, to life in Le retour a la raison (1923), and the idea that a film could be made without a camera would animate a later generation of direct filmmakers including Harry Smith, Len Lye, and Norman McLaren, who would paint, scratch, and draw directly on celluloid. Even before Retour, however, Man Ray had sought to produce moving images without a camera. His Revolving Doors is a series of abstract, colorful, paper …

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Le retour a la raison (1923)